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The starting point for the new branch is the fundamental work by Claude Shannon: The Mathematical Theory of COMMUNICATION. The word "communication" is stressed here. Shannon is the undisputed founding father of information theory, but he wrote a book on communications engineering.

He stressed that the meaning of a message is irrelevant to the engineering problem.

Information is, however, clearly connected to meaning. The information in a message refers to or is correlated to some system with certain physical or conceptual entities.

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